As we pass the three-year mark since the World Health Organization Speciality COVID-19 pandemic March 11, 2020 Data from the US shows cases and deaths have been relatively low in the second half of 2022, with more than 8 in 10 people (81%) having received at least one COVID-19 Vaccination Dosage As of February 23, 2023, only 17% of people aged five and older had received the updated bivalent booster dose. During the pandemic, the racial disparity in cases and deaths widened during the variant surge and narrowed when cases and deaths declined. Overall, however, Black, Hispanic, and American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) people have borne the heaviest health impacts of the pandemic, especially when adjusting the data for differences in age by race and ethnicity. While black and Hispanic people were less likely to receive a vaccine than their white counterparts during the early stages of the vaccination rollout, the disparity in the share that received at least one COVID-19 vaccination dose has narrowed over time and The reverse is true for Hispanics. , Despite this progress, the vaccination gap for Black people remains and Black and Hispanic people are about half as likely as their White counterparts to have received an updated bivalent booster dose.
This data note is based on federal data reported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), showing the status of COVID-19 cases and deaths by race and ethnicity through December 2022 and by race/ethnicity through February 2023 Provides vaccination. ,
What is the status of COVID-19 cases and deaths by race/ethnicity?
Racial disparities in COVID-19 cases and deaths have widened and narrowed during the pandemic, but when the data are adjusted to account for age differences by race/ethnicity, they show that AIANs, Black and Hispanic people Whites had higher rates of infection and death than whites for most of the pandemic.
Early in the pandemic, there were large racial disparities in COVID-19 cases. The disparities narrowed when the overall infection rate fell. However, during the surge associated with the Omicron variant in Winter 2022, the disparity in cases increased once again, with Hispanic (4,404.9 per 100,000), AIAN (4,148.6 per 100,000), Black (3,029.4 per 100,000) having the highest age-adjusted transition The rate was higher in Asians (2,873.4 per 100,000) and whites (2,826.4 per 100,000) as of January 2022 (Figure 1). After that jump, infection rates fell in spring 2022 and disparities narrowed once again. Through the summer of 2022, there was a modest increase in infection rates, with higher age-adjusted infection rates for Hispanic, AIAN, Black, and Asian people compared to white people. Between fall/winter 2022, infection rates fell across groups, but as of December 2022, age-adjusted COVID-19 infection rates were highest for Hispanic people (488 per 100,000) and AIAN people (440 per 100,000). White and Asian people had the lowest infection rates, at 313 per 100,000 and 329 per 100,000, respectively.
While death rates for most groups of color were significantly higher than those of white people at the start of the pandemic, since late summer 2020, there have been periods when death rates for white people have been higher or higher than some groups of color. has been similar. However, age-adjusted data show that AIAN, black and Hispanic people had higher death rates than white people for most of the epidemic and especially during the increase. For example, by January 2022, among Omicron increments, age-adjusted death rates for blacks (37.6 per 100,000), AIAN (34.8 per 100,000), and Hispanic people (30.0 per 100,000) will be higher than for white people (23.5 per 100,000). was more than 100,000) (Figure 1). After that increase, disparities narrowed as death rates declined. By December 2022, the age-adjusted death rate was similar at 4.4 per 100,000 for white people, 3.8 per 100,000 for AIAN people, 3.7 per 100,000 for black people, 3.5 per 100,000 for Hispanic people and 3.2 per 100,000 for K was the same for Asian.
Despite these fluctuations in the pattern of cases and deaths by race and ethnicity over time, the total cumulative age-adjusted data show that AIAN and Hispanic people were at higher risk of COVID-19 infection and that AIAN, Hispanic and Black people were at higher risk of COVID-19 deaths than white people. As of December 28, 2022, cumulative age-adjusted data showed that AIAN and Hispanic people were approximately 1.5 times more likely to be infected with COVID-19 than white people (Figure 2). AIAN people were twice as likely to die from COVID-19 as white people, and Hispanic and black people had a death rate of 1.7. and 1.6 times higher, respectively, than in white people. AIANs, blacks and Hispanics also have an increased risk of hospitalization due to COVID-19 compared to whites.
What are the COVID-19 vaccination and booster patterns by race/ethnicity?
While at least one COVID-19 vaccination dose disparities have narrowed over time and reversed for Hispanics, they persist for Blacks, kff analysis shows that at both the federal and state levels, black and Hispanic people had large gaps in vaccination in the early stages of vaccination rollout, which narrowed over time and eventually reversed for Hispanic people. Despite this progress, the vaccination gap for black people remains. According to CDCBy February 23, 2023, more than 8 in 10 people (81%) had received at least one dose of COVID-19 vaccination, and race/ethnicity was known for 76% of people who received at least one dose . Based on known race/ethnicity, nearly half (51%) of black people had received at least one dose, compared to 57% of white people, nearly two-thirds (67%) of Hispanic people, and seven out of ten Native Americans. Resident Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islanders (NHOPI) (71%), Asian (73%), and AIAN (78%) people (Figure 3).
Overall, few people have received the updated bivalent booster vaccine dose, and black and Hispanic people are about half as likely as white people to have received this booster so far. Updates bivalent booster Protects against both the original virus that causes COVID-19 and the BA.4 and BA.5 omicron variants. These boosters became available on September 2, 2022 for those ages 12 and older, and on October 12, 2022, for those ages 5–11. after his last COVID-19 vaccine dose. CDC reports that, overall, 17% of people over the age of five have received a dose of the updated bivalent booster vaccine as of February 23, 2023, with race/ethnicity data available for 90% of recipients. Based on people with known race/ethnicity, 21% of eligible Asians had received a bivalent booster dose, which was higher than the rate for whites (16%). Rates were slightly lower for eligible AIAN (14%) and NHOPI (11%) people, while eligible black (9%) and Hispanic 8%) people were almost half as likely as their white counterparts to have received a bivalent booster dose (Fig. 3).
While the disparity in cases and deaths has widened and narrowed during the pandemic, age-adjusted data show that AIANs, black and Hispanic people have had higher rates of cases and deaths than white people for most of the pandemic . and that they experienced overall higher rates of infection, hospitalization, and death.
Data indicates that the risk of COVID-19 illness and death is significantly increased for those who live or are unvaccinated An updated bivalent booster dose was not found, During the initial vaccine rollout, black and Hispanic people were less likely to receive vaccines than their white counterparts. However, disparities in receiving at least one COVID-19 vaccination dose have narrowed over time and reversed for Hispanics, although they persist for Blacks. Despite this progress in early immunization, the overall uptake of updated bivalent booster doses has so far been slow, and eligible black and Hispanic people have been about half as likely to receive updated boosters than their white counterparts.
Overall, these data suggest that although the pandemic has contributed to increased awareness and focus on addressing racial disparities, they persist, reflecting the underlying structural inequalities that drive them. The findings highlight the importance of a continued focus on equity and efforts to address disparities that leave people of color at increased risk, disease, and death, as well as to reduce the gap in access to health care, because COVID-19 recovery continues.